[30][t] The INA was driven down the Malay Peninsula and surrendered with the recapture of Singapore. He secured the position of the general secretary of the Congress party and started working alongside Nehru in the struggle for independence. Whatever the precise dates, the most important thing is the relationship. [84][85] The mechanics on the tarmac saw something fall out of the plane. "On 4 November 1937, Subhas sent a letter to Emilie in German, saying that he would probably travel to Europe in the middle of November. The son of a wealthy and prominent Bengali lawyer, Bose studied at Presidency College, Calcutta (Kolkata), from which he was expelled in 1916 for nationalist activities, and the Scottish Churches College (graduating in 1919). "On 21 March 1944, Subhas Bose and advanced units of the INA crossed the borders of India, entering Manipur, and by May they had advanced to the outskirts of that state's capital, Imphal. [66][67][70], In Germany, he was attached to the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz which was responsible for broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. This left the men he had recruited leaderless and demoralised in Germany. The British considered Bose and his "army of traitors" no better than their Japanese sponsors, but to most of Bengal's 50 million Indians, Bose was a great national hero and potential "Liberator." [89] Bose was naked, except for a blanket wrapped around him, and Dr. Yoshimi immediately saw evidence of third-degree burns on many parts of the body, especially on his chest, doubting very much that he would live. Since his body had lost fluids quickly upon being burnt, he was also given Ringer solution intravenously. These were legendary and apocalyptic times, however. "Bose was especially keen to have some Indian territory over which the provisional government might claim sovereignty. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January in 1897 in Cuttack in Orissa (now Odisha). The legend of 'Netaii' Bose's survival helped bind together the defeated INA. [63], Bose's arrest and subsequent release set the scene for his escape to Germany, via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. In view of this, Bose decided to move to South Asia. [17][o], Bose had been a leader of the younger, radical, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President in 1938 and 1939. [46], He came fourth in the ICS examination and was selected, but he did not want to work under an alien government which would mean serving the British. [42] "Marginalized within Congress and a target for British surveillance, Bose chose to embrace the fascist powers as allies against the British and fled India, first to Hitler's Germany, then, on a German submarine, to a Japanese-occupied Singapore. Ein Grund dafür ist Boses Bemühen, Nazideutschland als Bündnispartner gegen die Briten zu gewinnen.“[1], Atombombenabwürfen auf Hiroshima und Nagasaki, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Literatur von und über Subhash Chandra Bose, Zeitungsartikel über Subhash Chandra Bose, ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft, Der vergessene Freiheitsheld. [19] He was subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in 1940. Aufgrund einer Aussage der taiwanischen Regierung, dass es zwischen dem 14. April 1921 nach Indien zurück. Obwohl ein enger Mitstreiter Nehrus auf dem linken Flügel des Indischen Nationalkongresses tut man sich bis heute schwer mit seinem Erbe. It was based at Singapore and consisted, in the first instance, of five It sustained the morale of many across India and Southeast Asia who deplored the return of British power or felt alienated from the political settlement finally achieved by Gandhi and Nehru. How did a man who started his political career at the feet of Gandhi end up with Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo? The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Nach seiner zweiten Wahl versuchte er eine Resolution einzubringen, die die Briten unter Androhung einer militanten Revolte zur Übergabe Indiens an die Inder innerhalb von sechs Monaten zwingen sollte. His alliance with the most genocidal regime in history poses serious dilemmas precisely because of his popularity and his having made a lifelong career of fighting the 'good cause'. [11][14] However, many among his supporters, especially in Bengal, refused at the time, and have refused since, to believe either the fact or the circumstances of his death. [86] On 7 September a Japanese officer, Lieutenant Tatsuo Hayashida, carried Bose's ashes to Tokyo, and the following morning they were handed to the president of the Tokyo Indian Independence League, Rama Murti. "[106] However, he expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods (though not the racial ideologies) which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s, and thought they could be used in building an independent India. In January 1944 he moved his provisional capital to Rangoon and started his Indian National Army on their march north to the battle cry of the Meerut mutineers: "Chalo Delhi! Die Japaner, selbst an Indien wenig interessiert, da inzwischen auch vom Kriegsgeschehen und eigenen Niederlagen gegen die westlichen Alliierten im Pazifik geschwächt, überließen das Regiment den verbündeten Indern, die von Birma aus mit drei Divisionen über die indische Grenze marschierten und an der japanischen Frühjahrsoffensive 1944 teilnahmen. [40], His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten (who had manhandled some Indian students[40]) for the latter's anti-India comments. On 23 August 2007, Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzō Abe visited the Subhas Chandra Bose memorial hall in Kolkata.