Marl prairies are usually under water from three to seven months of the year, whereas sloughs may remain submerged for longer than nine months and sometimes remain under water from one year to the next. An act to provide for the establishment of the Everglades National Park in the State of Florida and for other purposes.

[21] The National Park Service recognizes nine distinct interdependent ecosystems within the park that constantly shift in size owing to the amount of water present and other environmental factors. [129], Fire naturally occurs after lightning storms but takes its heaviest toll when water levels are low. Plant communities are determined by the type of soil and amount of water present.[15][16].

Back-country permits are required for campsites along the Wilderness Waterway, Gulf Coast sites, and sites in the various keys. [31], Pine rocklands are considered one of the most threatened habitats in Florida; less than 4,000 acres (6.3 sq mi; 16.2 km2) of pineland exist outside the park. Two years later, the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane claimed 2,500 lives when Lake Okeechobee once again surged over its levees. [30] Pinelands require regular maintenance by fire to ensure their existence. Mammals along the shoreline include raccoons, opossums, bobcats, and fox squirrels. Sawgrass growing to a height of 6 feet (1.8 m) or more, and broad-leafed marsh plants, are so prominent in this region that they gave the Everglades its nickname "River of Grass", cemented in the public imagination in the title for Marjory Stoneman Douglas's book (1947), which culminated years of her advocacy for considering the Everglades ecosystem as more than a "swamp".

Canals were deepened and widened, and water levels fell dramatically, causing chaos in food webs. Dugan, "Wetland Ecosystem Management, and Restoration: An International Perspective" in Everglades: The Ecosystem and its Restoration, Steven Davis and John Ogden, eds. In 1962, the regions were re-titled; Region I became the Southeast Region, but no park affiliation changes were made in the region. The limestone that underlies the Everglades is integral to the diverse ecosystems within the park. Water levels may fluctuate dramatically around cypress domes and strands, so cypresses develop "knees" that protrude from the water at high levels to provide oxygen for the root systems. [89] Supporters of the plan included the National Audubon Society, who were accused by Friends of the Everglades and the Biodiversity Legal Foundation of prioritizing agricultural and business interests. Florida was once part of the African portion of the supercontinent Gondwana. As the 20th century progressed, water flow from Lake Okeechobee was increasingly controlled and diverted to enable explosive growth of the South Florida metropolitan area. [51] Two tribes of Native Americans developed on the peninsula's southern tip: the Tequesta lived on the eastern side and the Calusa, greater in numbers, on the western side. Explore nature's River of Grass on an Eco-Adventure tour or on a small private airboat. She studied the land and water for five years and published The Everglades: River of Grass in 1947, describing the area in great detail, including a chapter on its disappearance. Wśród roślin na terenie parku występują między innymi namorzyny, szuwary, paprocie i palmy. [36][37], Mangrove trees cover the coastlines of South Florida, sometimes growing inland depending on the amount of salt water present within the Everglades ecosystems. Various hiking trails are accessible from the road, which runs to the Flamingo Visitor Center and marina, open and staffed during the busier time of the year. Występują również obfite deszcze. The terrain of South Florida is relatively and consistently flat. [121], The Florida panther is one of the most endangered mammals on earth.

Plants began to migrate, subtropical ones from the northern part of Florida, and tropicals carried as seeds by birds from islands in the Caribbean. [40] Dozens of bird species use mangroves as nurseries and food stores, including pelicans, grebes, tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor), gulls, terns, hawks and kites, and arboreal birds like mangrove cuckoos (Coccyzus minor), yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia), and white-crowned pigeons (Patagioenas leucocephala).

[74] She wrote and spoke about the importance of the Everglades until her death at age 108 in 1998. According to the Köppen climate classification system, the Pa-Hay-Okee Lookout Tower at Everglades National Park has a Tropical savanna climate (Aw). Howard, F.W. [100] At some point between 1995 and the present day, "Field Areas" became regions again and Everglades National Park was moved into Region 2.[101].

Politicians who declared the Everglades uninhabitable were silenced when a four-story wall, the Herbert Hoover Dike, was built around Lake Okeechobee. Three species of mangrove trees—red (Rhizophora mangle), black (Avicennia germinans), and white (Laguncularia racemosa)—can be found in the Everglades. [33] Within the park, 20,000 acres (31.3 sq mi; 80.9 km2) of pineland are protected. "[72] The book has sold 500,000 copies since its publication, and Douglas' continued dedication to ecology conservation earned her the nicknames "Grand Dame of the Everglades", "Grandmother of the Everglades" and "the anti-Christ" for her singular focus at the expense of some political interests. Park Narodowy Everglades został stworzony w celu ochrony delikatnego ekosystemu lasów namorzynowych. [118] National Geographic rated both Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve the lowest-scoring parks in North America, at 32 out of 100. The Journey to Restore America's Everglades. Florida still attracts nearly a thousand new residents every day,[117] and building residential, commercial and industrial zones near Everglades National Park stresses the water balance and ecosystems within the park. The canals also cleared water that made way for agricultural fields growing sugarcane. On the park's western border, Fort Myers, Naples, and Cape Coral are expanding, but no system of levees exists to mark that border. [108] It has great biodiversity and many species of birds for bird watching and bird photography also. Jak wszystkie parki narodowe w Stanach Zjednoczonych zarządzany jest przez National Park Service. Successful in that confrontation, the organization has grown to over 4,000 members, committed to the preservation of the Everglades. Mammal species living in hardwood hammocks include black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), minks (Neovison vison), marsh rabbits (Sylvilagus palustris), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the rare, critically endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor "coryi"). [8] Thirty-six threatened or protected species inhabit the park, including the Florida panther, the American crocodile, and the West Indian manatee, along with 350 species of birds, 300 species of fresh and saltwater fish, 40 species of mammals, and 50 species of reptiles.

Izba Reprezentantów Stanów Zjednoczonych ustanowiła Park Narodowy Everglades aktem prawnym z 30 maja 1934, jednak nie przyznała w nim żadnych funduszy na rozwój parku i ostatecznie został on oficjalnie otwarty przez prezydenta Harry'ego Trumana 6 grudnia 1947 roku. [56], In the early 19th century, Creeks, escaped African slaves, and other Indians from northern Florida displaced by the Creek War, formed the area's Seminole nation.

[92], Everglades National Park reported in 2005 a budget of over $28 million. Ferriter, Amy; Serbesoff-King, Kristina; Bodle, Mike; Goodyear, Carole; Doren, Bob; Langeland, Ken (2004). Everglades National Park covers 1,508,976 acres (2,357.8 sq mi; 6,106.6 km2), throughout Dade, Monroe, and Collier counties in Florida, at the southern tip of the Atlantic coastal plain.