[1] The term was coined at the end of the 19th century by Ćiro Truhelka. Serbian Alphabet. For instance, letter ⟨e⟩ can be pronounced in four ways (/eː/, /ɛ/, /ɛː/ and /ə/), and letter ⟨v⟩ in two ([ʋ] and [w], though the difference is not phonemic). Romanization of Macedonian is done according to Gaj's Latin alphabet[6][7] but is slightly modified. (Bosnian-Catholic alphabet), by Franciscan writer, (Bosnian or Croatian Cyrillic alphabet), by Slovene linguist, This page was last edited on 31 August 2020, at 15:18. Understanding the Bosnian alphabet is essential in learning the Bosnian Language. Any of the languages can be written in either the Latin alphabet or the Cyrillic alphabet. You saw how a letter is written and might be pronounced, but there is nothing better than hearing the sound of the letters in a video or audio. The original Gaj alphabet was eventually revised, but only the digraph ⟨dj⟩ has been replaced with Daničić's ⟨đ⟩, while ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩ and ⟨nj⟩ have been kept. Its name in Serbo-Croatian is bosančica and bosanica[3] the latter of which can be translated as Bosnian script. It further influenced alphabets of Romani languages that are spoken in Southeast Europe, namely Vlax and Balkan Romani. Learning the Serbian alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. I hope you enjoyed this lesson about the alphabet in Bosnian. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. Some of the letters used in the modern Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet were not used in this version, and there are some extras letters that are no longer used. Exhibitions of the submitted artworks will be held in Sarajevo, Trebinje, Široki Brijeg, Zagreb, and Belgrade. Following Vuk Karadžić's reform of Cyrillic in the early nineteenth century, in the 1830s Ljudevit Gaj did the same for latinica, using the Czech system and producing a one-to-one grapheme-phoneme correlation between the Cyrillic and Latin orthographies, resulting in a parallel system. With out the Bosnian alphabet, it is difficult to say the Bosnian words and phrases properly even if you can write those words in Bosnian. However, the backs of record sleeves published in the former Yugoslavia, by non-Macedonian publishers, (such as Mizar's debut album) used ć and đ, like other places. Bosnian Alphabet. In this post we'll deal with the pronunciation and usage of those unfamiliar letters in the Croatian alphabet which beginners to the Croatian language often find confusing: č, ć, dž, đ, š, ž, lj, nj.. One letter, two characters: nj, lj and dž You might have noticed that some of these weird Croatian letters consist of two familiar letters written together. Italian or Russian is closer to their true pronunciation. The first phase of the project was to reconstruct all of the ancient characters by using ancient, handwritten documents. Learn Bosnian. If words are written with a space between each letter (such as on signs), each digraphs is written as a unit. Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica[1][2] is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet that originated in medieval Bosnia. Bosnian alphabet configuration is applied in a daily conversation. A [a] as in cat: B [b] as in bat: C [ts] as in cats: The breakthrough came in 1845, when the Slovene conservative leader Janez Bleiweis started using Gaj's script in his journal Kmetijske in rokodelske novice ("Agricultural and Artisan News"), which was read by a wide public in the countryside. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (Serbian: српска ћирилица /srpska ćirilica, pronounced [sr̩̂pskaː t͡ɕirǐlit͡sa]) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. It was largely based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet and was meant to serve as a unified orthography for three Croatian kingdoms within Austrian Empire at the time, namely Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia and their three dialect groups, Kajkavian, Chakavian and Shtokavian which historically utilized different spelling rules. The alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters: Gaj's original alphabet contained the digraph ⟨dj⟩, which Serbian linguist Đuro Daničić later replaced with the letter ⟨đ⟩. The preferred character encoding for Croatian today is either the ISO 8859-2, or the Unicode encoding UTF-8 (with two bytes or 16 bits necessary to use the letters with diacritics). This chart shows the Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, which was used from the 10th century until the 20th century, in some places. Both schools allege that supposedly various sources, both Croatian and other European. [7] The first book in Bosančica was printed by Frančesko Micalović in 1512 in Venice. However, as of 2010[update], one can still find programs as well as databases that use CP1250, CP852 or even CROSCII. Macedonian Latin alphabet, Pravopis na makedonskiot literaturen jazik, B. Vidoeski, T. Dimitrovski, K. Koneski, K. Tošev, R. Ugrinova Skalovska - Prosvetno delo Skopje, 1970, p.99, "On some similarities and differences between Croatian and Slovakian", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaj%27s_Latin_alphabet&oldid=982300465, Writing systems introduced in the 19th century, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Serbo-Croatian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In vertical writing (such as on signs), ⟨dž⟩, ⟨lj⟩, ⟨nj⟩ are written horizontally, as a unit. Gaj's Latin alphabet (Serbo-Croatian: abeceda, latinica, or gajica)[1] is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin. [8], It is hard to ascertain when the earliest features of a characteristic Bosnian type of Cyrillic script had begun to appear, but paleographers consider the Humac tablet (a tablet written in Bosnian Cyrillic) to be the first document of this type of script and is believed to date from the 10th or 11th century. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. The Slovene alphabet does not have the characters ⟨ć⟩ and ⟨đ⟩; the sounds they represent do not occur in Slovene. Other group of Croatian philologists acknowledges that "Serbian connection", as exemplified in variants present at the Serbian court of king Dragutin, did influence Bosnian Cyrillic, but, they aver, it was just one strand, since scriptory innovations have been happening both before and after the mentioned one. If you're trying to learn the Serbian Alphabet you will find some useful resources including a course about pronunciation, and sound of all letters... to help you with your Serbian grammar. The purpose of the project was to resurrect the ancient script and show the "common cultural past" of all the groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Serbian language. It was widely used in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and the bordering areas of modern-day Croatia (southern and middle Dalmatia and Dubrovnik regions). Flashcards. Generally speaking, Croatian and Bosnian are mostly written in the Western Latin alphabet, but Serbian and Montenegrin fluctuates between the two scripts. Also, the second school generally uses the name "Western Cyrillic" instead of "Croatian Cyrillic" (or Bosnian Cyrillic, for that matter). In the beginning, it was most commonly used by Slovene authors who treated Slovene as a variant of Serbo-Croatian (such as Stanko Vraz), but it was later accepted by a large spectrum of Slovene-writing authors. From the late 18th century it rather speedily fell into disuse to be replaced by the Latin script. It was never standardised and most letters had several different forms - the typical forms are shown here. Also don't forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Serbian. Below you will find the letters, the pronunciation and sound. Gaj followed the example of Pavao Ritter Vitezović and the Czech orthography, making one letter of the Latin script for each sound in the language. Jahić, Halilović, and Palić dismiss claims made by Croatian or Serbian philologists about national affiliation. This extinct form of Cyrillic is peripheral to Croatian paleography which focuses on Glagolitic and Latin script corpora. Combo of the Bosnian/SC "l" "j" sounds together. form of the Latin script by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj. [18][19], The name bosančica was first used by Fran Kurelac in 1861. It was not the first ever Croatian orthography work, as it was preceded by works of Rajmund Đamanjić (1639), Ignjat Đurđević and Pavao Ritter Vitezović. A slightly modified version of it was later adopted as the formal Latin writing system for the unified Serbo-Croatian standard language per the Vienna Literary Agreement. Approximating the corresponding consonants in. The term was coined at the end of the 19th century by Ćiro Truhelka. [9] Bosnian Cyrillic was used continuously until the 18th century, with sporadic usage even taking place in the 20th century.[10]. Usually an aspirated sound like the 'ck' in "brick", like the "li" sound in "million". like 'ts' at the end of "cats" (never like an "s" or "k"), pronounced like "ch" as in "church", but with the tongue up on the roof of the mouth, like "tch" as in "catch", but softer, with tongue behind top front teeth, very close to "j" as in judge, with tongue up on the roof of the mouth; very seldom used, like "j" as in "judge", but softer, with tongue behind top front teeth; hardly used at the beginning of the word, like 'g' in "go" (never pronounced like the "g" in "large"), a little more emphasized than the 'h' in "help", somewhat close to the Spanish jota (j), pronounced in the throat. Disclaimer | The Slovene version of Gaj's alphabet differs from the Serbo-Croatian one in several ways: As in Serbo-Croatian, Slovene orthography does not make use of diacritics to mark accent in words in regular writing, but headwords in dictionaries are given with them to account for homographs. Some Serbian scholars consider it as part of variant of Serbian Cyrillic and term "bosančica" according to them is Austro-Hungarian propaganda. Slovene ⟨odpad⟩ and Serbo-Croatian ⟨otpad⟩ ('junkyard', 'waste'). Below is a table showing the Serbian alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word. [20] Other instances of naming by individuals, in scholarship and literature or publications (chronological order, recent first):[21][22], Charter of Ban Kulin of Bosnia (12th century), Hval's Codex, 1404, kept in the University of Bologna Library, Italy, "Srećko M. Džaja vs. Ivan Lovrenović – polemika o kulturnom identitetu BiH Ivan Lovrenović", "SHORT HISTORY OF THE CYRILLIC ALPHABET - IVAN G. ILIEV - IJORS International Journal of Russian Studies", "Bosnian Arts Save Vanished Script From Oblivion", "Bosančica u ćiriličnoj paleografiji i njen status u filološkoj nauci", "Bosančica (zapadna ćirilica) kroz odabrana krajišnička pisma", Poljička glagoljica ili poljiška azbukvica, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bosnian_Cyrillic&oldid=985113724, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Numerous legal and commercial documents (charters, letters, donations) of nobles and royalty from medieval Bosnian state in correspondence with the, The "Supetar fragment" from the 12th century was found in, Liturgical works (missals, breviaries, lectionaries) of the, The comprehensive body of Bosnian literacy, mainly associated with the, It was a form of Cyrillic script mainly in use in.